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Chemistry II Challenge


Topics (CTs):

CT1. Thermochemistry. Potential energy and kinetic energy types of systems heat, thermal equilibrium internal energy, work pressure-volume work state functions first law of thermodynamics exothermic and endothermic enthalpy and enthalpy change calorimetry, heat capacity, specific heat Hess’s law standard enthalpies of formation.

CT2. Liquids and Solids. Intermolecular forces, phase changes in liquids, physical properties of liquids and relation to type of intermolecular forces, structure types in solids, types of solids, crystalline types in solids, vapor pressure, changes in states, phase diagrams.

CT3. Properties of Solutions. Solution composition/concentration, including molarity, mass percent, mole fraction, molality, normality, mass percent (weight percent), ppm, ppb and ppt. Impurities in water, ion exchanger, water treatment, factors affecting solubility, Raoult’s law, van’t Hoff factor (i).

CT4. Chemical Kinetics. The reaction rates, Rates Laws, reaction mechanisms and catalysis.

CT5. Chemical Equilibrium. The Equilibrium Condition the equilibrium constant , equilibrium expressions involving pressures , heterogeneous equilibria , applications of the equilibrium constant , solving equilibrium problems and Le Châtelier’s Principle .

CT6. Acid / Base. The nature of acids and bases, acid strength , the ph scale, calculating the ph of strong acid solutions , calculating the pH of weak , acid–base properties of salts, acid solutions bases and polyprotic acids ,the effect of structure on acid–base properties , acid–base properties of oxides , the Lewis acid–base .

CT7. Electrochemistry. Galvanic Cell, Cell Potential, Electrical Work, and Free Energy, Corrosion, Electrolysis.